Swine Influenza

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Annotated Information

Classification and Resources

ID 76
ICD-10
ICD-9-CM
OMIM
SNOMED-CT
Orphanet
MeSH
DO

Defination

Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs As of , the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as HN, HN, HN, HN, HN, and HN~Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood If transmission does cause human flu, it is called zoonotic swine flu People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection~Around the mid-th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans Since then, only such transmissions have been confirmed These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort~In August , the World Health Organization declared the swine flu pandemic officially over~Cases of swine flu have been reported in India, with over , positive test cases and , deaths till March ~

Synonyms

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Etiology

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Diagnosis

The CDC recommends real-time PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing HN The oral or nasal fluid collection and RNA virus preserving filter paper card is commercially available This method allows a specific diagnosis of novel influenza (HN) as opposed to seasonal influenza Near-patient point-of-care tests are in development~

Symptoms

The CDC recommends real-time PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing HN The oral or nasal fluid collection and RNA virus preserving filter paper card is commercially available This method allows a specific diagnosis of novel influenza (HN) as opposed to seasonal influenza Near-patient point-of-care tests are in development~

Treatment

Swine[edit]~In pigs, influenza infection produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite In some cases the infection can cause abortion Although mortality is usually low (around –%), the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers Infected pigs can lose up to ?pounds of body weight over a three- to four-week period~Humans[edit]~Direct transmission of a swine flu virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (zoonotic swine flu) In all, cases are known to have occurred since the first report in medical literature in , which have resulted in a total of six deaths Of these six people, one was pregnant, one had leukemia, one had Hodgkin's lymphoma and two were known to be previously healthy Despite these apparently low numbers of infections, the true rate of infection may be higher, since most cases only cause a very mild disease, and will probably never be reported or diagnosed~According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of the "swine flu" HN virus are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general Symptoms include fever; cough, sore throat, watery eyes, body aches, shortness of breath, headache, weight loss, chills, sneezing, runny nose, coughing, dizziness, abdominal pain, lack of appetite and fatigue The outbreak has shown an increased percentage of patients reporting diarrhea and vomiting as well The HN virus is not zoonotic swine flu, as it is not transmitted from pigs to humans, but from person to person through airborne droplets~Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probable swine flu requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent and past medical history For example, during the swine flu outbreak in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five US states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the seven days preceding their illness onset" A diagnosis of confirmed swine flu requires laboratory testing of a respiratory sample (a simple nose and throat swab)~The most common cause of death is respiratory failure Other causes of death are pneumonia (leading to sepsis), high fever (leading to neurological problems), dehydration (from excessive vomiting and diarrhea), electrolyte imbalance and kidney failure Fatalities are more likely in young children and the elderly~

Labs working on this disease

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References

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