Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

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Annotated Information

Classification and Resources

ID 7
ICD-10
ICD-9-CM
OMIM
SNOMED-CT
Orphanet
MeSH
DO

Defination

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) (previously known as Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, or HGE ) is an infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is typically transmitted to humans by at least three kinds of ticks, including Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes pacificus, and Dermacentor variabilis These ticks also transmit Lyme disease and other diseases~The bacteria infect white blood cells called neutrophils, causing changes in gene expression that prolong the life of these otherwise short-lived cells~

Synonyms

HGE RELATED ; human granulocytic ehrlichiosis  ;

Etiology

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Diagnosis

Clinically, HGA is essentially indistinguishable from Human monocytic ehrlichiosis, the infection caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and other tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme disease may be suspected As Ehrlichia serologies can be negative in the acute period, PCR is very useful for diagnosis~

Symptoms

Clinically, HGA is essentially indistinguishable from Human monocytic ehrlichiosis, the infection caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and other tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme disease may be suspected As Ehrlichia serologies can be negative in the acute period, PCR is very useful for diagnosis~

Treatment

Signs and symptoms may include fever, severe headache, muscle aches (myalgia), chills and shaking, similar to the symptoms of influenza Additional signs and symptoms may also include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, unintentional weight loss, abdominal pain, cough, diarrhea, aching joints, sensitivity to light, weakness, fatigue, change in mental status (extreme confusion, memory loss, inability to comprehend environment- interaction, reading, etc), and temporary loss of basic motor skills (no permanent cases have been reported) Symptoms may be minor, as evidenced by surveillance studies in high-risk areas Gastrointestinal tract symptoms occur in less than half of patients and a skin rash is seen in less than % of patients It is also characterized by a low number of platelets, a low number of white blood cells, and elevated serum transaminase levels in the majority of infected patients Even though people of any age can get human anaplasmosis, it is usually more severe in the aging or immune-compromised Some severe complications may include respiratory failure, kidney failure, and secondary infections~

Labs working on this disease

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References

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